Cognitive Guided Instruction allows teachers to understand how fundamental mathematical concepts develop in learners and allows opportunities to build and develop upon their natural understanding of number sense and intuitive ability to solve problems.

It requires careful listening to children, asking intelligent questions and engaging with their thinking to strengthen and deepen understanding.

It also allows you to pose the same question in different ways, requires flexible thinking and makes connections to deepen understanding.

The document covers different question types and allows teachers to ask the same question in different ways.

Questions may be easily adapted, added to planning or snipped into lessons.

The key is to ensure that children can represent the maths they have used in different ways, work flexibly and make connections between the maths they are using.

Carl had some apples. Lynsey gave him 3 more. He now has 9 apples. How many did he have at the beginning?

*Here the augend (starting number) is unknown.*

Carl had 6 apples. Lynsey gave him more. Now he has 9 apples. How many did Lynsey give him?

*Here the addend (number to add to the augend) is unknown.*

Together, Carl and Lynsey have 9 apples. Lynsey has 3 more apples than Carl. How many apples do Carl and Lynsey have each?

*Here comparison is needed.*

The document demonstrates how we can explicitly teach children through guided instruction and the use of a Rekenrek to develop number sense.

Each question type is exemplified and has suggested dialogue to offer guided instruction to children. Questions are then differentiated as shown:

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